Melbourne Cautiously Opens Up Today, What Lies Ahead

Melbourne Cautiously Opens Up Today, What Lies Ahead

Melbourne are now waking up to the end the sixth lockdown in the city. Melbourne has spent the longest time in lockdown since March 2020 than any other major city in the world. It has been a difficult journey for the five million residents of Melbourne, and other parts of Victoria at different times.

Today’s relaxations reflect Victoria’s milestone of 70% fully vaccinated against COVID earlier that expected. What can Melburnians do now? How did it happen so early than they expected? And how will hospitals handle this?

What Is Going To Change Melbourne?

There are no longer five reasons why people have to leave their home. Ten people can visit homes and the nightly curfew is lift. Within metropolitan Melbourne, there will be no limit on distance.

Hospitality venues can host up to 20 fully vaccinated guests indoors and 50 outside. Outdoor settings, such as cafes, cinemas, and other physical recreation facilities, can open to up to 50 fully vaccinated individuals per location. Fully vaccinate Melburnians will finally able to get their hair cut and have their dogs groom.

Many parents who have been exhaust by home schooling are relieve to see that the staggered school returns of Grade 3 and Year 11 in metropolitan Melbourne begin today.

Is The Roadmap Still In Place Melbourne?

Yes, the previously announced roadmap was modify. Some restrictions, such as travel limits and the ceiling on household gatherings, have been remove in advance.

A school opening schedule also brought forward.

Premier Daniel Andrews cited two factors for these changes: the increased pace of COVID vaccinations and shorter intervals between the first and second doses.

The Burnet Institute’s mid-October modelling provided more optimistic and reassuring estimates about the effect of reopening the health service on services than previous models.

This is partly due to the fact that the assumptions in the revised model are based more on Victorian data than on projections based upon international evidence. On average, the hospital stay is much shorter than expected. After reopening, the chances of overcrowding the hospital have fallen from 63% down to 23%.

Yesterday, Victoria had 3.4% of active cases and 0.6% in ICU. These rates are lower than the ones experienced in NSW during its peak.

What Are Our Next Steps?

A number of institutes including Doherty and Burnet have predicted an increase in cases following the end of lockdowns. Victoria will be able observe the results of the NSW easing restrictions.

There are however important differences between these two states. After 50% of eligible adults had been fully vaccinate in NSW, cases began to decline steadily. The average daily case number was down to 530 the day after the lockdown ended. However, Victoria has almost 2,000 daily new cases per day.

We can also learn from other countries who have relaxed similar vaccination restrictions. There has been much written about Denmark’s relative success in controlling COVID since lifting restrictions.

Denmark did not remove the restrictions until 70% of its population had been fully vaccinated (83 percent of eligible adults). When you consider the entire population, Melbourne only has 55% of its citizens fully vaccinated.

Denmark reported around 500 cases per day when it began to relax restrictions. This was similar to NSW, but the number dropped to 300 days later. The number of cases has increased steadily to 700 per day. The health system can handle around 126 patients being admit to hospital and 11 in ICU.

Portugal has the highest current vaccination rate in the globe – 85% is currently fully vaccinate. In the past 18 months, hospital admissions and COVID rates have fallen to their lowest levels.

It was careful about lifting restrictions. Bars and nightclubs were only permit to reopen last month if the population had received at least 80% of their vaccinations. Customers at entertainment venues must show a digital certificate of vaccination or a negative COVID testing. Masks are still mandatory in certain settings.

Jobs Are Most At Risk From The Coronavirus Shutdown

Jobs Are Most At Risk From The Coronavirus Shutdown

The coronavirus shutdown immediate impact is dramatic in its size, speed, and concentration on a few industries. I tried to find out where the virus and shutdown would have the greatest impact on the industry most affected by the shutdown. In February 2020, approximately 2.7 million workers worked in these industries.

While it will be impossible to know for certain until April 16, when data from the Bureau of Statistics about the March labour force is available, it seems reasonable to believe that the jobs of approximately 900,000.

What Jobs Are Most At-Risk Shutdown?

Below is a table that I have created to list the people I consider most at-risk. One group of approximately 1.4 million workers, primarily in industries that involve eating out, entertainment and accommodation, affect by government shutdowns.

Another group of workers is in the retail trades (nonfood) and personal service industries. The effect on jobs comes from consumers’ reduced spending on non-essential items.

Both at-risk groups have a high proportion of young workers. Over half of those in at-risk groups are younger than 35. Six of seven employees are employ. One in seven of the seven are owners/managers or work in a family-owned business.

The females make up slightly more than the males. They can split equally between part-time and full-time.

Certain Industries Will See Growth Shutdown

The coronavirus is causing rapid growth in some industries. These include the retail grocery trade, associated logistics services, and supply of office essentials required to work from home.

It is possible to see an increase in the demand for health services and health care over a short time.

There are other areas of increased demand, such as home delivery of goods purchased online and cleaning services. These services usually perform by volunteers or government agencies that are involve in COVID-19.

The Workforce total Will Shrink

The supply of workers has not had much impact so far, but it will. This is happening as more and more childcare centres and schools close, and more workers leave to care for their children. Parents are reluctant to outsource the responsibility to grandparents. The coming weeks will see more disruptions to the labour supply. COVID-19 illness causes workers to be force to take time off and others to care for their sick family members.

Although it’s difficult to quantify the extent of the withdrawal from the labor market, it could be significant. First, withdrawal to care for or avoid illness is most likely to have the greatest impact. In 2019, there were 1.21million families with children between 0 and 9 years old, where either one parent or both were employed. This is a sign of the scale of withdrawal.

There were 634,500 people 65-84 who did voluntary work in 2016. The impact of workers falling ill could also be significant on the supply of labour. If COVID-19’s current growth rate continues for the next three weeks and those who have been infected during the past two weeks are then unable work, that would mean that approximately 67,500 people will be out of work because of illness.

The dramatic impact of COVID-19 on employment is already evident in news images from Centrelink. In the coming weeks, further impacts are almost certain. This is the biggest challenge to the post-war labour market policy.

Regulation And Legislation As Tools In The Battle Lessons

Regulation And Legislation As Tools In The Battle Lessons

As the leading cause of death in Australia, obesity has Lessons overtaken tobacco. This is partly due to Australia’s success at reducing smoking, although those in the most vulnerable segments of society still smoke at unacceptable levels.

There are many lessons to be learn from the successes of tobacco campaigns and intervention that could apply in the fight against obesity.

Lessons From Smoking

Combining social marketing with national legislation has been a successful combination to reduce smoking. Social marketing is a powerful tool for promoting change. When it is implement, legislation provides disincentives and incentives to encourage healthier behavior.

There were first restrictions and then total bans on all advertising. First, there were restrictions, then total bans on advertising. The legislation that create smoke-free workplaces was extend over time to any enclose public place where people gather for any activity, with the exception of some casino, such as shopping, travel, entertainment, or other recreation.

Gradually, the tax on tobacco products was increase. The government recently introduced plain packaging legislation. These efforts have led to a significant drop in smoking rates and improved health qq online.

What About Obesity?

Like smoking, obesity is more severe for the economically disadvantage. This could be due to the economics in food choice, where energy-dense and nutrient-poor processed foods cost more per calorie than fresh, minimally-processed foods. Fresh, healthy foods are consider the foundation of a healthy diet. These foods include wholegrain cereals, fresh plant foods, lean meats, fish, and wholegrain cereals.

The globalized food system produces a large amount of processed foods high in fat, sugar, and salt. These foods provide energy (calories, or kilojoules) at very affordable prices. This has been more apparent over the past 30 years, coinciding with the obesity crisis.

For example, relative to the GDP of the United States, sugar and sweetened beverages have fallen, while fresh fruits and vegetables have risen sharply, resulting in a difference of two to threefold since 1980.

There is also evidence that processed foods have a high level of protein and can lead to an over-consumption and depletion of energy, such as carbohydrates and fats. This is call the protein leverage hypothesis.

What Is The Best Way To Make It Work?

What regulatory strategies could used to combat obesity? Clear product information could be a starting point. This should include a clear and simple food labelling system that is guide by independent principles of public health.

Traffic-light labelling put forward in the recent excellent government-commission report Labelling Logic. It fell short of the usual hurdle that required industry support in order to gain more traction. Imagine if the tobacco sector had been require to support earlier efforts to reduce smoking.

However, there are some positive developments. Major fast food chains across the globe now have to list kilojoule values on their food and beverages. Some restaurants also do this voluntary.

We should do more. There are many examples worldwide of taxation being apply to unhealthy products. France, for example, taxes sweetened beverages, while Denmark has recently implemented a fat tax, and Peru is planning to tax junk food.

Taxes On Unhealthy Food Lessons

Taxes on unhealthy food are often opposed because they can be regressive, which means that people with lower incomes will suffer more. Although this is a major issue, it has been suggested that a more comprehensive approach which includes taxes on unhealthy food and subsidies for healthy foods could reduce its regressive effect while maximising the health benefits.

These measures could also be used to bring relative prices for healthy and unhealthy food back to the level they were before the obesity epidemic exploded 30 years ago. However, as we learned from tobacco, there is no one solution to obesity that will work. Progress will likely be incremental. There will need to be action on many fronts, including regulation of advertising and marketing. Incentives and pricing regulation in order to encourage healthier choices. Every step of the process will require effective social marketing campaigns.

It’s not only the food supply that needs to change. Other areas that encourage physical activity will need to be addressed. Such as urban planning to encourage walking and cycling, public transport use and workplace innovation.